Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS     The KRAKEN logo.Copyright KRAKEN  Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS

Founded in 1968 by John Clark, Terry Hall and Gerald Jennings

Kraken - The Consolidation of a Concept

A Brief history and introduction

Kraken was the prime mover in the destruction of the myth that tropical marine fishes were almost impossible to keep and maintain in small home aquaria.

This myth was already showing cracks before Kraken’s formation in 1968.

Bob Straughan of Coral Reef Exhibits in Florida had proved the efficacy of air powered sub-sand filtration systems hugely reducing initial equipment costs and was publishing a bi-monthly magazine.  Saltwater Aquarium magazine published by Coral Reef Exhibits of Florida

Tropic-Marin in Germany had synthesised a marine salt mix which removed the need for hauling seawater from the coast if you lived inland.

Members of the Marine Study Aquatic Society, formed in 1966 and later to become the IMSS – some  became founders of Kraken – had formulated medications for some of the most common ailments found in marine fish stocks.

The Dow Chemical Company had contributed by producing a new silicone rubber sealant which allowed construction of all glass aquaria – removing the risks associated with metal framed systems and mastics.

PetFish monthly magazine was born with a new forward-looking editorial approach to the marine fishkeeping hobby,

 Kraken was born into this nascent mix of ideas, concepts and cross disciplinary knowledge, together with another company formed by a Brighton schoolteacher, Graham Cox – later to become SeAquariums / Waterlife.

 Later in Kraken’s development it was also considerably aided by Hilary Guneratne of Fonthill Aquaria who pioneered  the importation of reasonably priced and relatively inexpensive fishes and invertebrates from his own business in Ceylon ( now Sri Lanka)



KRAKEN agents and Marina product suppliers worldwide 1969


1965    The Marine Study Aquatic Society (MSAS) – Formation

1966    MSAS becomes IMSS/ Marine Study Aquatics started as the society's resale branch /PetFish monthly commences publication

1967    Marine Study  releases Marina 1 and trials prototype seawaters

1968    Kraken is formed. / Fonthill Aquaria opens in London ( completely moved from Columbo later in 1968 / early 1969)

1969 Kraken showroom opens in Tottenham, London. The Aquarium Show staged by PetFish

1971 First mention in archives of Hillness

1972 Hillness Research establishes Maltese base

Kraken product range and stockists of Marina  in 1969

Kraken synthetic and artificial seawater formulae and seawaters

The formulae for Marina synthetic seawaters have now been published and can be viewed at http://www.seawaters.org

Further reading and later developments :



Home The start How it Started The Full Product Range Books / Documents Pioneers Clark|Jennings formula After Kraken Fade to Fonthill