Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS     The KRAKEN logo.Copyright KRAKEN  Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS

Founded in 1968 by John Clark, Terry Hall and Gerald Jennings


After Kraken a veritable deluge of  marine fishkeeping companies, importers and publications flooded into the market. The proverbial stable doors had been opened. Some of these were major players in the pet products market who now saw a new opening, (such as Aquarian, pioneered by Dr. David Ford**.)

** Dr.David Ford in the Aquarian Laboratories c. 1975

A few of these were direct descendants of Kraken itself. They are listed here for posterity.

Hilary Guneratne's Fonthill Aquaria took over the marketing of Kraken's most popular products ***and was also involved in the Hillness Research Foundation -based in London and Malta as was Gerald Jennings who became Hillness's Research Director .

Hillness Research documentation   Further Hillness Documentation

Doc 1.pdf     Doc 2.pdf     Doc 3.pdf


The British Marine Aquarists Association and its monthly journal, Marinews continued after the closure of the IMSS

Practical Fishkeeping magazine - the descendant of PetFish monthly

****Perhaps the last vestige of the Kraken range. A product pack of Marina No.5 , an antifungal remedy based on a variant of Parachlorophenoxyethanol.

  Marina remedies 

Kraken product range and stockists of Marina  in 1969

Kraken synthetic and artificial seawater formulae and seawaters

The formulae for Marina synthetic seawaters have now been published and can be viewed at http://www.seawaters.org

Further reading and later developments :



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