Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS     The KRAKEN logo.Copyright KRAKEN  Logo of the International Marine Study Society IMSS

Founded in 1968 by John Clark, Terry Hall and Gerald Jennings

MARINA - The beginnings in 1966

Home The start How it Started The Full Product Range Books / Documents Pioneers Clark|Jennings formula After Kraken Fade to Fonthill

Virtually nobody in 1966 with the exception of some hardy and experimental pioneers kept tropical marine fishes in home aquaria, and those who kept native coldwater marine fishes were nearly always based within reach of the coastline due to the difficulty of obtaining or replenishing the seawater required. There were almost no articles in the popular aquatic press in the UK and not too many in the imported US literature ( predominantly Tropical Fish Hobbyist magazine ) with the exception of Saltwater Aquarium magazine published in Florida by Bob Straughan.

A flavour of the state of the marine hobby can be gleaned from the Calypso Publications title, A History of Tropical Marine Fishkeeping in the U.K. 1960-1980

A history of tropical marine fishkeeping in the UK 1960-1980

People wanted to keep these species - many of these brave pioneers tried with varying degrees of success, and with the formation in 1965 of the Marine Study Group of aquarists, the MSAS, hard-earned knowledge had a way of being transmitted to a wider range of interested and eager fishkeepers. This was multiplied vastly with the start up of PetFish magazine in April 1966 which challenged the Aquarist and Pondkeeper for a large share of the popular aquatic press market and had a forward thinking and pro-marinist editor in Anthony Evans.

In 1966 the MSAS received an inrush of interested overseas members and rapidly enlarged to become the IMSS and one of the benefits of this enlargements meant the arrival of overseas expertise to add to the core of UK interest - cost was the next hurdle. German products were extremely expensive. U.S. products seemingly could not penetrate the UK market. It was time for the U.K. to show that we could succeed using home-produced products to be made available to this newly expanding market.

Kraken-Marina A history of the marine biological supply house, Kraken, and its Marina brand of pioneering products for marine aquarists and laboratories Seawaters, artificial, seawater, history, Laboratories, social history, formula, biological, formulae

Kraken product range and stockists of Marina  in 1969

Kraken synthetic and artificial seawater formulae and seawaters

The formulae for Marina synthetic seawaters have now been published and can be viewed at http://www.seawaters.org

Further reading and later developments :



Home The start How it Started The Full Product Range Books / Documents Pioneers Clark|Jennings formula After Kraken Fade to Fonthill